Terqa Electronic Library

Terqa Preliminary Reports

TFR: Final Reports
TPR: Preliminary Reports
Articles and monographs
Newsletters and short notices


2.3 MB


7 MB
1977 Giorgio Buccellati
Marilyn Kelly-Buccellati

"General Introduction and the Stratigraphic Record of the First Two Seasons,"

Syro-Mesopotamian Studies 1
pp. 73-134.
Abstract: "New excavations at ancient Terqa (modern 'Ashara, in Syria) were carried out by American teams in 1975 and 1976, and are planned to continue for several years. Beginning a new type of modular preliminary reports, this fascicle concentrates on the substantive and methodological premises of the excavations and on the stratigraphic record of the two seasons of 1975 and 1976. With regard to our program of research, various hypotheses are fornlUlated which will condition our work at the site in its early stages. With regard to stratigraphic analysis, special coverage is given to a third millennium monumental structure and to second millennium materials-a residential quarter and several burials."
4 MB
1977 Giorgio Buccellati

A Cuneiform Tablet of the Early Second Millennium B.C.,"

Syro-Mesopotamian Studies 1, pp. 135-142.
Abstract: The single epigraphic find of the second season came from the surface, not far from one of the regular excavation units. It is a small administrative document of the same type as those from Mari dated to the period of the bkkunakku's. Its importance lies in the inherent implications of (1) close links with Mari at that period, (2) well established archival procedures at Terqa earlier than known heretofore, and (3) possibly a special linguistic affiliation for Terqa in the early periods.
4 MB
1977 Marilyn Kelly-Buccellati
Linda Mount Williams

"Object Typology of the Second Season: The Third and Second Millennia,"

Syro-Mesopotamian Studies 1, pp. 143-169.
Abstract: A typological analysis of 30 objects found during the second season, all dating t~ the third and second millennia, including a stamp seal; clay figurines; metal pins, weapons and tools; beads, rings and miscellaneous implements. A descriptive catalog provides a detailed entry for each item, most of which are also illustrated in line drawings and half-tones.
5.2 MB
1977 Marilyn Kelly-Buccellati
William R. Shelby

"A Typology of Ceramic Vessels of the Third and Second Millennia from the First Two Seasons,"

Syro-Mesopotamian Studies 1, pp. 171-236.
Abstract: A total of 64 vessel types (corresponding to 108 vessels) from the second and third millennia is here described and fully illustrated. The introduction gives a typological analysis of the Terqa corpus with pertinent comparative materials. The catalog is arranged according to a new taxonomic system which has been devised for a comprehensive catalog of Mesopotamian ceramics and which is presented here in its basic characteristics.
4.5 MB
1978 As'ad Mahmoud

"Die Industrie der islamischen Keramik aus der zweiten Season,"

Syro-Mesopotamian Studies 1, pp. 95-114.
Abstract: A pottery kiln for glazing ceramics was found during the second season of excavations in 1976 at Terqa, modernday Ashara. It was situated to the south of the tell, just outside the perimeter of the ancient city. Numerous ceramic vessels, glazed and unglazed, were found in or near the kiln. All of these finds may be dated to the twelfth century A. D., in the Ayyubid period.
9.8 MB
1978 Giorgio Buccellati
Marilyn Kelly-Buccellati

"The Third Season: Introduction and the Stratigraphic Record, "

Syro-Mesopotamian Studies 2, pp. 115-164.
Abstract: Following a review of goals and procedures, the main substantive results pertaining'to stratigraphy and architecture are described and illustrated. -In the Second Millennium, besides some interesting jar burials, a considerable exposure was obtained of a Khana period residential quarter: the date established by epigraphic data confirms the conclusions reached on typological grounds in 1976, whereby a major artifactual assemblage can now be safely attributed to this otherwise unknown period. -In the Third Millennium strata we were able to identify a massive monumental structure as a city wall of which several portions could be traced along the perimeter of the tell: its structural make-up is evidenced, at least in part, by a large exposure at one end of the tell and by a sounding at the opposite end. Just within the city-wall are well preserved remains of manufacturing and storage facilities (kilns and bins), followed in time by richly endowed burial.
4.5 MB
1979 Olivier Rouault

"Les documents epigraphiques de la torisieme saison,"

Syro-Mesopotamian Studies 2, pp. 165-180.
Abstract: Five tablets and one envelope were recovered in the 1977 excavations. Two tablets and the envelope are well stratified within a Khana period residential quarter: they are a contract for the sale of a piece of land and (possibly) a school text. The other tablets were found in later fill above the same residential quarter: they are fragments of two more Khana contracts (with the name of a new king) and a fragment of an already known inscription of Zimri-Lim for the construction of an ice house.
3.6 MB
1980 Linda Mount-Williams

"Object Typology of the Third Season: The Third and Second Millennia,"

Syro-Mesopotamian Studies 3, pp. 35-97.
Abstract: A typological analysis of 96 objects found during the third season (September-December 1977). These objects, dating to the third and second millennia, include clay figurines, metal pins, weapons and tools, beads, rings and miscellaneous implements. A descriptive catalog provides a detailed entry for each item, with cross references to the Object Typology of the Second Season (TPR 3). Most objects are also illustrated in line drawings and half-tones.
TPR 10
32.5 MB
1979 Giorgio Buccellati

"The Fourth Season: Introduction and the Stratigraphic Record,"

Bibliotheca Mesopotamica Vol. 10.
Abstract: During the fourth season of excavations at Terqa, a major clarification was obtained of the city defensive system. Structurally it was seen to consist of three massive defensive rings from the third millennium, for a total width of some 20 meters and a perimeter of about one mile, and with excellent stratigraphic evidence for long term extramural deposition in a moat-like depression. Dated typologically and by C-14 to the early part of the third millennium, and with antecedents which go back to the fourth millennium and perhaps earlier, this is the largest among the most ancient fortification systems of the Near East. -A second major result was the discovery of a private archive of cuneiform tablets, belonging to a man by the name of Puzurum, of which the stratigraphic context is described here. The tablets were preserved in a room which served for the dead storage of a variety of items, important and not. - Two new periods are now also documented. For the first millennium B. C. we have some interesting burials and possible traces of a "nomadic" or "Aramean" temporary settlement at the site. From Parthian times we have two isolated artifacts, without connections with any structural remains. Finally, we have found for the first time evidence of modest dwellings, from the medieval or early modern period.
TPR 11
1.8 MB
1980 Nicholas M. Magalousis
Arthur Flint
Vance Gritton
George E. Miller

"Sourcing Techniques for Ceramics and Soils at Terqa and Related Sites, "

Syro-Mesopotamian Studies 3, pp. 169-200.
Abstract: The primary objectives of this research were to (1) establish an overall orientation and framework for future analysis of this type at Terqa and (2) to determine on a preliminary basis the relationship of ceramics and soils of two sites in the Near East: ancient Terqa (modern Ashara in Syria) and Dilbat (modern Tell Deylem in Iraq). The long-term objective of this sourcing was to contribute data toward the reconstruction of social, political and economic trends. A truly interdisciplinary effort was required, as several universities and analytical techniques were utilized-atomic absorption, optical emission, thin section, botanical and computer analyses. A general attempt was made to suggest and formulate a continuum of research standards, from the original field collection of samples to the actual laboratory analysis; this standardization would establish an overall climate of reproducibility and credibility. The most important substantive results are found in the areas of ceramic composition, ceramic claylsoil relationships, atomic absorption and computer refinement for archaeological analysis.
TPR 12
1.7 MB
1983 Giorgio Buccellati
Olivier Rouault

"Digital Plotting of Archaeological Floor Plans, "

Computer Aided Research in Near Eastern Studies.
Abstract: A computer program for digital plotting of archaeological floor plans was implemented during t h e 8th season of excavations a t Terqa (Spring 1983). This article describes first, the nature of the archaeological questions involved - precision of the record, ease of access to the data, logistic efficiency. There is then a listing of the main program with a detailed commentary and sample outputs; two special u t i l i t y programs are also included. The programs are written in BASIC and are operational on a TRS-80 Model 100 -(Portable Computer) with a plotter TRS-80 Model FP215.
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